中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之四十二:生物多样性公约

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之四十二

生物多样性公约

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明

4.4.2生物多样性公约

4.4.2 Convention on biodiversity

《生物多样性公约》是和刚才讲的《京都议定书》的前身《气候变化公约》一起出现的。1992年,在巴西里约热内卢召开了由各国首脑参加的、最大规模的联合国环境与发展大会。在此次“地球峰会”上,各国签署了一系列有历史意义的协议,其中就包括《气候变化公约》和《生物多样性公约》。《生物多样性公约》是第一项旨在保护生物多样性,以利于生物资源可持续利用的全球协议,很快获得了广泛的接纳,150多个国家在大会上签署了该文件,此后共175个国家批准了该协议。

The Convention on Biodiversity coincided with the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the predecessor of the Kyoto Protocol. In 1992, The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio de Janeiro with attendance of many heads of states. During this conference, a series of agreements of historical significance were signed, including the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biodiversity. The latter is the first global convention designed to protect biological diversity to maintain the sustainable use of biological resources. It soon gained wide acceptance. More than 150 countries at the conference signed the document, which has now been ratified by 175 countries.

中国是世界上生物多样性最丰富的国家之一,也是批准加入《生物多样性公约》最早的国家之一。按照公约要求,每个缔约国要制定生物多样性行动计划。后来我曾参与一些行动计划的资料整理工作,正式出版后称为《中国生物多样性行动计划》。这个计划是中国政府签署《生物多样性公约》之后,要开展的生物多样性保护工作的纲领性计划。从1993年公约正式生效实施以来,中国政府为履行公约、保护生物多样性,积极认真地开展了一系列卓有成效的工作。中国成立了有国务院20个部门参加的中国履行生物多样性公约工作协调组,在国家环保部成立履约办公室。

China is one of the countries in the world with the greatest biodiversity, and is one of the earliest countries to endorse the convention. According to the requirements of the Convention, each country needs to develop a biodiversity action plan. Later on, I was involved in data compilation work relative to the China Action Plan for Biodiversity. This plan is the programmatic plan for China’s biodiversity conservation work after the Chinese government signed the Convention. Since the Convention came into effect in 1993, the Chinese government has actively carried out a series of fruitful work to implement the Convention and protect biodiversity. China established a coordination group in compliance with the Convention involving 20 State Council departments with an office in the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

  为遏制生物多样性锐减的趋势,中国已制定和颁布了20多项生物多样性保护法律、法规,基本形成了保护生物多样性的法律体系。各有关部门和地方政府,每年都联合或分别组织一系列执法检查,严厉打击和查处破坏生物多样性的违法活动,使中国生物多样性保护初步走上有法可依、依法管理的轨道。

To curb a sharp decline in biodiversity, China has formulated and promulgated more than 20 biodiversity conservation laws and regulations for the purpose of setting up a basic legal system. Every year all relevant departments and local governments organize a series of joint or separate law enforcement inspections to crack down on illegal activities. China’s biodiversity conservation work has embarked on an initial stage of management according to law.

生物多样性保护行动,大体上分三种:就地保护、迁地保护与环境教育。在就地保护方面,中国建立了1276个自然保护区,对境内80%以上的物种实施了有效保护;在迁地保护方面,各地建立的动物园、植物园、种子库、精子库,都是为此服务的;在推进生物多样性保护的环境教育方面,成立了中国生物多样性保护基金会(现更名为中国生物多样性与绿色发展基金会),其专家队伍来自全国各高等院校和与生物有关的研究院所。

Biodiversity conservation actions generally fall into three categories: in situ conservation, ex situ conservation and environmental education. In terms of in situ conservation, China has established 1,276 nature reserves covering more than 80% of the species within China. As to ex-situ conservation, zoos, botanical gardens, seed banks, and sperm banks established around China all cater to this end. In terms of the environmental education to promote conservation of biodiversity, China established China Biodiversity Conservation Foundation (later renamed China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development Foundation), with its experts coming from colleges and universities and biological research institutes nationwide.


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