中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之四十一: 京都议定书

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之四十一

京都议定书

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明

4.4.1京都议定书

4.4.1 Kyoto Protocol

   前面提到的“呼吸税”,其实在国际市场上,是可以交易的。也就是说,减少污染物排放,尤其是二氧化碳和二氧化硫的排放,是可以用来赚钱的。所以技术进步不仅仅是投入,还有回报。这样的项目在中国已经落地了。

The aforementioned “breathing tax”, in fact, can be traded in the international market, which means that the reduction of pollutant emissions, especially carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions can be used to make money. Therefore, technological advance is not merely an input, and it gives rewards. Such projects have emerged in China.

2008925日,全国第一家综合性排放权交易机构——天津排放权交易所,在天津滨海新区挂牌成立。这个机构,是一个可利用市场化手段和金融创新方式,促进节能减排的国际化交易平台。

On September 25, 2008, the country’s first comprehensive mechanism of emission exchange—Tianjin Climate Exchange, was set up in Tianjin Binhai New Area. This exchange is an international trading platform making use of market measures and financial innovations to promote energy conservation.

以二氧化碳排放为例,企业、政府或个人,尤其是发达国家的企业或政府,由于经历了长期的工业发展,实际上对环境是有“罪过的”。但这样的“过”,可以通过减排温室气体来“将功补过”,这就是“碳中和”。

Take carbon dioxide emission as an example. Enterprises, governments and individuals, particularly enterprises or governments in developed countries, have committed much “sin” against the environment in the protracted progress of industrial development. But they can compensate for the “sin” by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the procedure is called “carbon neutrality”.

所谓碳中和,就是指企业、团体或个人,测算其在一定时间内的碳排放总量,通过购买等量的碳减排指标并注销(即碳减排指标不再转让),从而抵销自身产生的碳排放量。这就需要政府或企业做出切实的贡献,通过技术创新等手段减少温室气体排放,或者到经济欠发达地区植树造林而增加碳吸收。

The so-called carbon neutrality, means that enterprises, organizations or individuals calculate their estimated total amount of carbon emissions within a certain time; and through purchase of an equivalent amount of carbon emission reduction targets and canceling them (i.e., targets are not to be transferred), they offset their carbon emissions. This requires tangible contributions by governments or enterprises to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by means of technological innovation, or doing forestation work in economically underdeveloped areas in order to increase carbon sequestration.

天津排放权交易所(俗称“碳排放交易所”)成立的背景是京都议定书的签署。有识之士预感到,人类大量的经济活动,造成了全球温室效应,引发了以海平面升高为代价的全球气候变化。这个变化最早是工业化国家惹的祸,但要遏制气候变化,必须全球各国共同努力。这就促成了《京都议定书》的形成。

Tianjin Climate Exchange (commonly known as the “carbon exchange”) was founded against the backdrop of the Kyoto Protocol. People have begun to realize that excessive human economic activities will result in global warming and trigger global climate change typified by the rising of sea level. The blame for the change was first imputed to industrialized countries, but to curb climate change calls for concerted endeavor from all countries. This is the reason for the formulation of “Kyoto Protocol”.

《京都议定书》制定于199712月,全球有80多个国家签署了该议定书。中国政府于19985月签署。目前,中国积极地参加到这一人类减排温室气体的行动中,并承诺到2020年,单位国内生产总值CO2排放比2005年下降40%45%

The Protocol was enacted in December 1997, and more than 80 countries worldwide have signed it. The Chinese government signed it in May 1998. At present, China is actively participating in the reduction of greenhouse gases, and has promised that by 2020, CO2 emissions per unit of GDP will decline by 40% to 45% compared to that of 2005.

因为中国是发展中国家,理论上讲是《京都议定书》的受益国,但中国是最大的发展中国家,它的经济发展方式影响着周边甚至全球气候的命运。作为负责任的大国,中国承诺履行京都议定书的协议,努力减少温室气体与污染物排放。除了成立天津排放交易所外,还在内蒙古、广西发展碳汇林[1],在青海、西藏等地发展太阳能产业,在内蒙古、新疆等地发展风能,以替代高碳排放的化石能源,这一系列行动,都是中国对全球减排行动作出的努力。

China is a developing country. In theory, it should be a beneficiary of the “Kyoto Protocol”. However, as the largest developing country, its economic development mode influences surrounding countries’ or the global climate. As a responsible world power, China has promised to be committed to the Kyoto Protocol and endeavored to reduce greenhouse gases and pollutants emissions. In addition to the establishment of the Tianjin Climate Exchange, China has also developed carbon sink forests in Inner Mongolia and Guangxi, solar energy industry in Qinghai, Tibet and other places, and wind power in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and other places, as alternatives of fossil energies with high fuel carbon emissions. These actions are intended as contributions of China to the global emission reduction.



[1]以充分发挥森林的碳汇功能,降低大气中二氧化碳浓度,减缓气候变暖为主要目的的林业活动,就泛称为碳汇林或碳汇林业。

[1]Carbon sink forests or carbon sink forestry refer to forestry activities whose major purpose is to give full play to the carbon sink function of the forest, reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide, and mitigate climate warming.


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