中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之三十九: 企业环境评价

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之三十九

企业经济环境评价

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明


4.3.2企业经济环境评价体系

4.3.2 Environmental impact assessment for enterprises system

2005118日,中国企业界发生了一件大事:国家环保总局在京宣布,停建30个违法开工项目,包括三峡工程的某些项目。这个事件力度很大,因此被媒体称为“环评风暴”。这件事表明,环保部门比以前更强硬了,中国将严肃环保法律法规,严格环境准入,彻底遏制低水平重复建设和无序建设。

On January 18, 2005, a big event took place in Chinese business circles: the State Environmental Protection Administration announced in Beijing it would suspend 30 illegal projects, including some projects in the Three Gorges Project.  Called by the media as “the EIA storm”, this event showed that the environmental protection department would become tougher. China would intensify environmental protection laws and regulations, enhance environmental standard, and completely curb repetitive and disorderly construction.

事情的起因是怒江等流域的水电开发。当时,某个水电开发部门,拟对中国境内最后一条未开发河流实施十三级梯级开发,声称不让怒江的一滴水白白流淌。在他们的头脑中,根本没有考虑到江河的生态功能。企业这种只顾经济利益不顾生态环境的做法,引起了一些有志之士的愤慨,绿家园等环保组织上书中央政府,得到总理温家宝的批示。最终,怒江十三级开发项目没有通过环评。怒江项目引发了中国的“环评风暴”,也是《中华人民共和国环境影响评价法》实施后,环保总局首次大规模公布违法开工项目。这场风暴,让人感到振奋,因为环保部门有力量、敢出手,能够积极作为了。

The event was triggered by hydropower development in Nujiang River and some other rivers. At that time, one hydroelectric development department planned to carry out thirteen-level cascade development of the last totally untapped river in China, claiming not to waste every drop of water from the Nujiang River. It did not take into account the ecological functions of the rivers. Such practice of only caring for economic benefits regardless of the ecological environment on the part of enterprises aroused indignation in some duty-conscious people. Green Earth and other environmental protection organizations petitioned the central government, and got comments from the then Premier Wen Jiabao. Eventually, the Nujiang River project did not pass the EIA. But this project led to an “EIA storm” in China, and it was the first time after the implementation of Law of the PRC on Evaluation of Environmental Effects, for SEPA to announce a long list of illegal projects. This storm was inspiring, because people felt that the Administration finally had the courage and power to act boldly.

环境影响评价是对企业设立的环境“门槛”,是对规划和建设项目实施后可能造成的环境影响进行分析、预测和评估,提出预防或减轻不良环境影响的对策和措施,进行跟踪监测的方法与制度。环境影响评价制度是国家通过法定程序,以法律形式确立的对环境影响评价活动进行规范的制度。环境评价具有一票否决的权力,过不了环评关,项目上马就是非法的。

Environmental impact assessment is the “threshold” of environment protection for enterprises. It is the method and system targeted at analyzing, forecasting and evaluating the possible environmental impacts made by the implementation of planning and construction projects in order to formulate related policies and measures to prevent or mitigate adverse environmental impacts and to track and monitor them. The environmental impact assessment system is the established legal form made through legal procedures to regulate environmental impact assessing activities. It has veto power so that a project will be declared illegal if it is does not go through the EIA.

《环境影响评价法》公布以来,各地加大了对企业的监管力度和对不合格企业的处罚力度,定期公布环评不合格企业名单,限其整改或实施“关、停、并、转”。20117月,安徽省环境保护厅公布了2011年第二季度环评不达标生产企业名单,名单涉及合肥市、宿州市、铜陵市、芜湖市等11个市的24家企业。其中,铜陵市有7家环评不达标企业,高居“榜首”。在铜陵清华科技有限公司取样监测发现,该企业废水总排口挥发酚达到74.1 mg/L,超标147.2倍。这些不合格企业的存在,是造成淮河水污染的元凶,理应受到惩罚。

Since the law was published, local authorities have strengthened supervision of enterprises and enforced punishment of unqualified enterprises. They regularly publish a list of enterprises which failed to pass EIA, and specify the time period for them to rectify and reform, or these failed enterprises will be “closed, suspended, merged, or transferred”. In July 2011, the Environmental Protection Department of Anhui Province announced the list of the disqualified enterprises in the second quarter, involving 24 companies in 11 cities including Hefei, Suzhou, Tongling, and Wuhu. Tongling ranked the first with seven failed enterprises. Sampling monitoring from Tongling Qinghua Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. revealed that total discharge of volatile phenol reached 74.1 mg/L, exceeding the standard by 147.2 times. These enterprises are the culprit of pollution in the Huaihe River, so they should be punished.

中国的环境影响评价起步于20世纪70年代。1973年第一次全国环境保护会议以后,环境影响评价的概念开始引入中国。1978年,国务院环境保护领导小组起草的《环境保护工作汇报要点》,首次提出要开展环境影响评价。200391日起实施的《环境影响评价法》,对环评的主体、对象、内容、程序等予以明确规定,使环评制度的法律地位和层次得到了很大提升,成为中国环评制度发展的重要里程碑。

China’s environmental impact assessment started in the 1970s and the concept was introduced after the first National Conference on Environmental Protection in 1973. In 1978, the Environment Protection Leading Group of the State Council drafted the Key Point of Environmental Protection, proposing to carry out environmental impact assessment for the first time. The Law of the PRC on Evaluation of Environmental Effects that came into effect on September 1st, 2003, clearly specifies the subject, object, content, and procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment, enhancing the legal status and level of EIA system. It is an important milestone of China’s EIA system.



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